Wines are made from grapes. The ones which are made from purple or black coloured skins form into red wines whereas the ones with yellowish skin colour are used in making of white wines. It is possible to chemically alter the natural colour of wines but it is the natural colour which is mostly retained in the wine making process. So, the basic types of wines based on colour of skin of grape is Red or White.
However, there are other categorizations of wines as well. These are based on following parameters:
1. Types of grapes- such as Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Chardonnay, Riesling, etc. The types of grapes are distinguished on the basis of their physical characteristics, say leave structure.
2. Farming method- Organic, Vegan or Bio-dynamic. Organic vineyards are the ones in which the chemicals are not used. Vegan wines are organic and do not make use of animal residues in fining of wine. The bio-dynamic wines are made using the farming practices in accordance with celestial phenomenon.
3. Fermentation- In some wines, where second fermentation is allowed to take place, it leads to formation of the sparkling wines. These bubbly wines could be red or white.
4. Fortified Wines- If a little brandy is added to the wine, it leads to its fortification against damage, giving it a longer lease of life. The fortified wines are another special category of wines.
5. Dessert wines- Usually taken after the dinner, these are sweet wines and are comparable to taking dessert. These are sweet because the fermentation process is not allowed to complete and some sweetness is retained in the wine.
These are some of the most ways in which the wines are distinguished. In some countries, such as France, the wines are also labelled on terroir influences. Some classic examples are Champagne and Burgundy.